College Essay




The English Only Debate



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The proponents of the English only debate stems their origin primarily from the argument concerning the concepts of National Cohesion similar to the type of fear generated through the Francophone separatist movement which passed across the Canadian region and pitted the French Language altogether and culture against the Anglo-Canadian Federation of the 1970’s. The happenings in Canada brought about a fear of forming a multicultural society that could well cause the balkanization of the United States if left un-noticed. The proponents of the English only debate also have used the additional costs of having to produce multiple language ballots as another reason to rail against local and state governments that do not support English only initiatives. The opponents to the English only debate consider it to be a reaffirmation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which adhere to the belief that the language of an individual is their cultural identity and it should not be abridged. The funding of educational institutions is not to deny fair access to educational opportunities such as providing support to students whose spoken language may be other than English.

There is also some confusion about what the term bilingual means. The opponents of bilingual education or who support English only legislation view bilingual meaning speaking another language in lieu of English. It is viewed in terms of embracing other cultures values and somehow disinheriting American values in the process. Conversely, the proponents of bilingual education view it as a necessary program to support the transition from an immigrant’s cultural language into learning mainstream English. Because of economic necessity many of these émigrés will learn English through the normal acculturation process that all newly arrived Americans have experienced for the last three hundred years. And for many government leaders bilingual education is a reaffirmation of the leadership role the U.S. should take in the world by creating a citizenry that is knowledgeable of other people’s languages and culture.

The crux of the argument against bilingual education or stated differently, in favor of laws that support English only laws is based mostly on cultural cohesion. The cultural history of the United States is replete with examples of prior immigrant groups jealously protecting their own ethnicity from newly arrived émigrés. Eventually, some of these same groups, the Germans for example, would find their own peculiar niche and develop their own culture within the United States. As an example, Amish settlements founded in Pennsylvania and Ohio is an offset of old German culture. Amish schools in Holmes County, Ohio are counted as one of the “100 different languages spoken by 26,500 limited English proficient students in Ohio schools (Lavin-Crerand, 2006).”  The reaction to the émigrés and their culture is often marked with the language they speak and becomes the source of derision and divisiveness. However, it is also racial. For example the reaction of many communities to the re-settlement of the Vietnamese and Haitian refugees of the mid-1970 was met with more resistance than the re-settlement of Russian immigrants into the Brighton Beach Area of New York which was rarely mentioned in the U.S. news media.

The 1970’s  was the beginning of the English only movement in the United States as stated by  Dicker, in reference to Huddleston in 1983 when he stated that “for the last fifteen years” there has been resistance and antagonism toward “our historic language” the “melting pot philosophy” that has assimilated immigrants “into the American mainstream (Dicker, 1996)”. This was echoed by the idiosyncratic linguist and former Senator from California, S. I. Hayakawa, who in 1985 was lamenting about the publishing of the first Spanish-language Los Angeles Yellow Pages telephone directory. The supporters of English only laws view the federal government not doing enough to discourage the use of cultural languages in official government business such as overseeing elections. The proponents point-out that “in 375 jurisdictions in 21 states, the federal government still requires that ballots be printed in languages other than English (Dicker, 1996).”

At the grassroots level, according to Pyle, there is some evidence that bilingual education may not be serving its intended population. She reported about the dissatisfaction of the parents of children attending the Ninth Street School, a Los Angeles Unified campus near downtown’s skid row, “where nine in 10 students do not speak English. In 1996 only six students, about 1%, mastered enough English to test out of the school’s special bilingual classes (Pyle, 1996).”  This prompted one concerned parent to say: “A lot of us want our kids to learn Spanish so they can write to their grandpas,” Lenin Lopez said in Spanish. “But I want my children to learn English so they won’t have the problems that I’ve had (Pyle, 1996)”.

Both the presumptive nominees for the Democrat and Republican Parties for President of the United States, Senator Barrack Obama and Senator John McCain both view that a bilingual society is important. Senator Obama states that for “America’s continued leadership in the world” is by “our capacity to communicate across boundaries and across borders (CNN, 2008)”. Senator John McCain wrote that “to reject a native language as a tool for teaching as well as enriching our national heritage makes learning all the more difficult and makes us a poorer nation (Krikorian, 2008)”.

In 1986 when California passed its official English law, there were an estimated 40,000 people in Los Angeles County on waiting lists for English classes. In 1991 Governor Pete Wilson of California scraped plans to put $65 million of Federal monies into English proficiency classes. This resulted in the protest of 2,500 Mexican-Americans who, as one leader described the protest as “wanting to participate in the economy of the greatest state in the nation (Dicker, 1996)”.  The dominance of English is already well-established, especially by non-native speakers of English. It is used in an official capacity in over forty countries.  Therefore, many immigrants already know that full integration in American society requires their ability to speak English. No one wants to rely on their own language or have to seek out translation services for basic services such as shopping, banking, doctor’s visits, or having a conference with their child’s classroom teacher.

The effort to discourage bilingual election ballots is an effort to discourage immigrants with a minimal knowledge of English from participating in the democratic process. Federal laws were enacted protecting the use of bilingual ballots in districts that have large populations of non English speakers. As a society we value literacy as a passport to full participation in American society; but not use mastery of the English language as a qualification for citizenship. The costs associated with bilingual voting is no more onerous than voter registration drives, providing wheelchair access to polling areas, providing special Braille ballots for blind voters, or for providing absentee or mail-in balloting for many special and general elections.

It is my view that the English only debate is a reaction against the threat to national cohesion that many adherents believe would be the result if multiculturalism taught in schools and supported by the U.S. Department of Education is not abated. The argument is wrapped in many flavors depending upon what the perceived threat is at the moment. In the 1970’s it was seen in terms of national identity and culture, in reaction to the possibility of French Canada splitting away from the Canadian Federation. Today, it is viewed in costs of providing education to illegal immigrants and that local government should not be using taxpayer money to be printing ballots in various languages. Bilingual education is important for the future of the United States. It is necessary to identify and provide services to all children who enter the school system, regardless of their cultural language, to make available the education that is expected to make every child in the United States capable of fulfilling their potential.


















Cable Network News (CNN). (2008). “Excerpt of the transcript of the debate between     Democratic presidential  candidates Senators Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama on February 21, 2008 at the University of Texas in Austin.”  Retrieved on July 3, 2008, from

Dicker, Susan J. (1996). Ten Official English Arguments and Counter Arguments. Retrieved on     July 3, 2008, from

Krikorian, Mark. (2008). John McCain, Multiculturalist, Immigration is just one problem.   National Review Online, January 24, 2008. Retrieved on July 3, 2008, from

Lavin-Crerand, Mary. (2006). ESLPresentation.  Dr. Crerand’s lecture before EDCI 663,             Intervention Literacy, Ashland University, Columbus, Ohio April 10, 2006.

Pyle, Amy. (1996). “Bilingual Schooling is Failing, ParentsSay” Los Angeles Times, Tuesday,      January 16, 1996. Retrieved on July 3, 2008, from







A)     Neutral geometry, which is more often referred to as absolute geometry, is based on the first four of Euclid’s postulates and ignores the fifth postulate. One of the more general ways to state the fifth postulate is “for a two-dimensional geometry when two straight lines are both intersected by a third line, if there are two interior angles formed on either side of the third line such that their sum is less than 180 degrees then the first two original lines will eventually intersect on the same side as the interior angles aforementioned.”

The major difference between these geometry types is the behavior of parallel lines, or lines for which a third line is perpendicular to each. In Euclidean geometry, the parallel lines can be extended for an infinite distance and will always remain the same distance from one another. These are the traditional parallel lines we are used to dealing with and they do not intersect. In neutral geometry such lines will curve away from each other (hyperbolic geometry) and not intersect, or they will curve toward each other (spherical geometry) and intersect one another. Many types of these non-Euclidean geometries exist, including elliptical geometry, saddle geometry, and Lobachevskian geometry.

B)      The development of non-Euclidean geometry is important because it further solidified the relationship between science, mathematics, and experiment. An excellent example of this is that relationships that hold true on a flat desktop or sheet of paper will not necessarily hold true on the surface of the Earth (and vice versa). A necessary conclusion from this development is that Euclidean geometry is merely a special case of geometry in the actual universe.

Mathematicians have spent centuries trying to show that Euclid’s fifth postulate can be inferred from the first four. During the course of these attempts, several equivalent statements have been proposed. An offshoot of this is dealing with geometries where no assumptions are made about parallelism, of which hyperbolic and spherical geometries are examples. A few examples of equivalent statements for Euclid’s fifth postulate are:

1) There exists a triangle whose angles add up to 180 degrees
2) There exists a quadrilateral where all the angles are 90 degrees
3) The upper limit for the area of a triangle is unbounded

Part 1.

The great circle containing points B and C can be thought of as the equator of the Earth. This means that point A can be considered one of the poles, for simplicity we will call it the North Pole. With these analogies, it can be seen that the line segment BC runs east/west while the line segment AB runs north/south. This requires that angle ABC measures 90 degrees. A similar argument shows that angle ACB also measures 90 degrees. It is obvious by inspection that angle BAC is greater than zero degrees, making the sum of the three angles for triangle ABC greater than 180 degrees.

Part 2.

This is a proof that the angles in a triangle equal 180°:

The top line (that touches the top of the triangle) is
running parallel to the base of the triangle.


  • angles A are the same
  • angles B are the same

And you can easily see that A + C + B does a complete rotation from one side of the straight line to the other, or 180°

The above is from

Construct a quadrilateral with all four angles equal to 90 degrees. This means that the quadrilateral will consist of two sets of parallel lines. Consider the top line in the above diagram to be a portion of one side of the quadrilateral and the bottom line in the above diagram to be a portion of the opposite side of the quadrilateral. This means that the top and bottom lines of the above diagram are parallel.

The two angles marked A are opposite interior angles, and thus have the same value.

The two angles B are also opposite interior angles, and thus have the same value as well.

Now look at the top of the triangle. It is obvious that A + B + C = 180 degrees since the three angles added together make a straight line.

This means that the three angles within the triangle add to 180 degrees.

Part 3.
The above diagram is drawn in a hyperbolic geometry. This means that the sum of the angles for any triangle will be less than 180 degrees.

Notice that triangle ABC and triangle BCD share a common side, namely line segment BC.

This means that the three angles in triangle ABC (A, ABC, and ACB) will add to less than 180 degrees, and the three angles in triangle BCD (D, BCD, CBD) will add to less than 180 degrees.

Now look at the diagram as being a quadrilateral with four angles (A, ABD, ACD, and D). Notice that angle ABD is the sum of angles ABC and CBD. Notice also that angle ACD is the sum of angles ACB and BCD.

This means that the sum of the four angles of the quadrilateral will equal the sum of the six angles of the two triangles, which is less than 360 degrees.

If the sum of the angles of the quadrilateral must be less than 360 degrees, then it is not possible to have each of the four angles of the quadrilateral equal to 90 degrees.

This means that there are no rectangles in hyperbolic geometry.










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Budgeting refers to the process of quantifying the plans of a business so as to enable it attain its objectives in the defined period.  The outcome of the process is budgets, which are used for performance evaluation, cost control and future decision making. Budgetary Planning and Control is short term quantification and monitoring of long term strategic plans of the organizations.  Strategic planning encompasses preparation of strategic plans, which define the objectives to be pursued within the context of corporate policy.  It is by budgeting that a long term business plan is put into action. Individuals prepare budgets for coordinating the combined intelligence of the entire organization into a plan of action. It is prepared for distinct functional areas, departments, financial and resource items. Budgets are prepared for planning, motivation, control, coordination, communication, and clarification of responsibility and authority.


Maxim Staffing Solutions Budgeting

Maxim Staffing Solutions are devoted to staffing qualified nurses to fill a range of facility shifts, comprising contract assignments, per diem and temp-to-perm. They realize the challenge of employing and holding top nursing talent. They provide their clients with the opportunity to choose some of the most sought after nurses from many of the leading facilities across the country. People may choose Maxim Staffing solutions for nurse staff because of cost effective strategies, around-the-clock accessibility, popularity, motivated employees, dependability and thorough screening process. Maxim Healthcare strengths include recruiting and maintaining an abundance of healthcare staff which enable them to fill a large volume of staffing requests in a time efficient manner.

The organization values are innovativeness, inclusiveness, sustainability, and differentiation. All the activities of the healthcare should be undertaken in a sustainable manner. Innovativeness denotes the introduction of new or significantly improved solutions regarding a product, service, a process, marketing and organization. It can be process innovation, organizational innovation, marketing innovation and product innovation. The value of inclusiveness postulates that the budget plan is the product of an inclusive, consultative approach, directed by the top management and responsive to employee’s engagement. Sustainability comprise of financial, environmental, cultural and social sustainability (Wiseman 2010, p.45). Differentiation refers to identifying, understanding and supporting the uniqueopportunities that offers a competitive advantage in the organization dominion. These organization opportunities provide growth potential in several areas and contribute significantly to both wealth and job creation. Differentiation when used as a competitive strategy allows the healthcare to successfully develop and maintain an exceptional value proposition for individuals and businesses considering investing in the same business field. It will offer opportunities that do not exist in other staffing solutions (Meyers 1994, p.33).

The vision of the organization is to balance and promote vibrant employment and economic opportunities, diverse, health and safety services and honoring the environment and valuing its cultural heritage. The organization goals are the following: Attracting and maintaining a permanent or seasonal population that contributes to a skilled and adaptable labor force; building a sustainable economy; addressing health and housing by promoting wellness, providing accessible and quality healthcare and by meeting the infrastructure continuum of housing need; and respecting the organization culture and heritage, promoting an emerging diverse healthcare staffing solutions (Fozzard & Foster 2001, p. 28).

The challenges of Maxim Healthcare budgeting include the following: Too much reliance causing resistance or inflexibility to change, antagonism where budgets exert undue pressure, difficulty in setting levels of attainment which result into too tight budgets that cause loss of morale. The budgeting control is a terminate exercise hence any report from investigation of variances may be of little use to their current operations (Fozzard & Foster 2001, p. 28).

The organization cash budget records cash inflows and outflows that are anticipated to occur in respect of each functional budget.  It may be prepared for duration of one week, month or quarter of the budget period. The benefits of the organization cash budget include revealing the availability of excess cash so that short term investments may be considered; ensuring that sufficient cash is available when required; showing whether capital expenditure projects can be financed internally; indicating the availability of cash for taking advantage of discounts; serving as a foundation for evaluating the actual cash management performance of responsible managers; indicating the cash required for current operating activities; indicating the effect the position of each seasonal requirements, large stocks, unusual receipts and laxity in collecting account receivable (Meyers 1994, p.33).

The absent of structural change in major programs in the healthcare services and budgetary flexibility continue to decline and eventually disappear. The demands for new federal resources to address the emerging challenges is pressing and compelling. The organization fiscal budget escalates rapidly beyond its projection period. Therefore, they need to create mechanisms and metrics to better highlight proposed new fiscal commitments and long term implications of existing programs (Foster & Fozzard 2001, p. 31).

Maxim Healthcare should carry out SWOT analysis in order to evaluate and use its strengths, minimize weaknesses, maximize opportunity and guard against its threats (SWOT analysis, 2008). This will assist the organization to maximize profits and enhance shareholders wealth creation.

The SWOT Matrix











The organization experiences some problems with their budgeting. There are distinct glitches associated with budgetary control activities. There is difficulty in dealing with variable expenses for example; the bills which may vary every month are difficult to estimate when budgeting and may require an individual to approximate the expense until he/she knows how much it will be. It is difficult to allocate funds to category of activities for example, entertainment, groceries, and restaurant meals. Budgets should be broken down into particular categories within an organization. It helps in determining the amount spent on an activity. The organization budgetary committee has problems of keeping track of expenses that they incur on daily, monthly, and yearly periods (Meyers 1994, p.38).

The organization should apply performance budgeting since its effect on the organization’s finances could be substantial and speed offers competitive edge. Furnished with these reasons many organizations will be tempted to stake everything on performance improvement.




The organization should adopt performance based budgeting since it will help in improving the organization capability to evaluate competing claims in the budget by equipping budgetary decision makers with better information on the outcomes of both individual programs as well as entire portfolios of programs and apparatuses addressing common performance results. It further adjusts and notifies the agenda of questions by shifting the focus of discussions from inputs to outcomes and results. The budgeters should work according to structural strategies which seek to create the institutional schedules that best suit their interests. Thus, the outcome of institutional reforms is determined by the political process in much the same way as results of the budget process itself.















Fozzard, A., & Foster, M. (2001). Approaches of change to public expenditure management in low income aid dependent countries. Helsinki: University of United Nations, the World Institute for Development Economics Research.

Meyers, R. T. (1994). Strategic budgeting. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

SWOT analysis: a tool for making better business decisions. (2008). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Risk Management Agency and Agriculture.

Wiseman, B. (2010). Budgeting. New York, NY: Weigl Publishers.



  1. Describe your research question, and explain its importance.


Using a t-test,  I plan to test the claim by the STAT2060 course coordinator in the University  that the mean score of the STAT2060’s final exam in the Fall 2013 was 65 (The mean score of this course in the previous years was 65). This issue is important since many students were concerned about that they had written a final exam that was more difficult than the one for last year. The populations of my interests are exam scores for all students who had written the STAT2060 final exam in the Fall 2013.



  1. Identify the dependent and independent variables of the question you chose


The independent variable in this research is the students in the University who wrote the STAT2060 final exam in the Fall 2013. The dependent variable is the STAT2060  final exam score of a student in this university.


  1. Describe how you would use the four-step hypothesis test process to answer your research question.


In order to answer my research question: the mean score of the STAT2060’s final exam in the Fall 2013 was 65, I randomly selected the exam scores of  16 students from instructors’ grade books. The results are listed below:


56, 67, 68, 75, 45, 80, 60, 70, 68, 58, 90, 64, 67, 77, 40, 95



Step 1: State the null and alternative hypothesis.

H0:   M = 65

Ha:   M ≠ 65

Step 2: n=16

To calculate the sample mean and sample standard deviation using the above sample data, I plugged these values into the formula in stat-disk analysis. Hence; the standard deviation is s= 14.43607, rounded to 14.44 while the Sample mean = 67.5

Step 3: We use the above sample size of n= 16, the mean score claimed by the course coordinator = 65, the significance level of 0.05, the sample standard deviation  s= 14.44 and the sample mean = 59.3, and plugging these values into the formula found in stat-disk analysis. The results are shown below.



Claim:    µ = µ(hyp)


t Test

Test Statistic, t: 0.6925

Critical t:        ±2.1315

P-Value:           0.4992


95% Confidence interval:

59.80546 <  µ < 75.19454


Fail to Reject the Null Hypothesis

Sample does not provide enough evidence to reject the claim

Step 4: Since the p-value of 0.4992 is greater than the chosen significance level of 0.05, I fail to reject the null hypothesis . the claim by the course coordinator in the University that the mean score of the STAT2060’s final exam in the Fall 2013 was 65 is correct and supported.  Equivalently,  the 95% confidence interval shows that we are 95% confident that the population mean (the mean exam score of all students who wrote the STAT2060 final exam) lies between 59.80546 and 75.19454.



  1. Explain how using a t test could help you answer your research question.

The above results showed that we are 95% confident that the population mean (the mean exam score of all students who wrote the STAT2060 final exam) lies between 59.80546 and 75.19454. Since the value 65 is in the 95% confidence interval, we fail to reject the null hypothesis. So, we are 95% confident that the mean score of the STAT2060’s final exam in the Fall 2013 was 65. So, the claim by the course coordinator is correct. This proves that the exam for the Fall 2013 was the same difficulty level as the ones in the previous tears.


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